Chronology of the Ute Tribe

1598 Spanish trade begins with Utes
1626 Spanish scribe in New Mexico writes first account of Utes
1640 Mouache and Capote bands probably acquire the horse from Spanish
1650-60 Each of the seven Ute bands hold well-defined territory
1670 Acquisition of the horse allows Utes to travel in large bands
1670 Spanish officials conclude first peace treaty with Utes
1760-70 Utes grant Spain the right to trade up the Gunnison River
1776 Dominguez and Escalante expedition travels through Ute territory
1811 American fur trappers encounter Utes
1819 Adams-Otis Treaty sets Spanish-American boundaries along upper Arkansas River
1821 Mexico gains independence from Spain and part of present Colorado becomes Mexican domain
1821 William Bucknell opens Santa Fe Trail; passage of goods through Ute territory becomes common
1828 Robidoux builds Fort Uncompahgre on Gunnison River in the heart of Ute country
1833 Ouray born near Taos
1834 Bent, St Vrain, and Company completes Bent's Fort on Arkansas River
1842 Fort Pueblo settlement founded
1844 Fort Uncompahgre on Gunnison destroyed by Utes
1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mexican-American War. New Mexico and southern Colorado ceded to U.S.
1849 First U.S. treaty with Utes made at Abiquiu, New Mexico; Utes acknowledge U.S.authority while U.S. agrees to pay the Utes $5000 per year the keep the peace
1850 First Ute agencies established in Taos
1852 Fort Massachusetts built in San Luis Valley as military garrison to control and protect Utes
1854 Utes attack and destroy Fort Pueblo
1855 Col. Thomas Fauntleroy and U.S. Troop defeat Utes at Poncha Springs
1855 Peace treaty concludes U.S. - Ute War
1858 Fort Garland replaces Fort Massachusetts as military post in San Luis Valley
1859 The great Colorado Gold Rush begins
1859-79 Ute population falls from 8000 to 2000 due to disease and diminished hunting grounds
1861 Territory of Colorado created
1863 Tabeguache cedes San Luis Valley to U.S.
1868 Utes confined to western third of Colorado Territory by treaty
1871 Denver Indian's agency established to provide Utes with food
1873 Gold and silver rush occurs in San Juan Mountains
1873 Utes cede San Juan mining area to U.S.; one-fourth of their remaining lands
1878 Fort Lewis established at Pagosa Springs to protect and control Utes
1878 Nathan Meeker named Ute agent at White River
1879 En route to White River agency, Major Thornburgh and 13 men killed in Ute attack
1879 At White River agency, Meeker and 11 others killed by Utes
1880 Ouray goes to Washington, D.C. for treaty negotiations
1880 Ouray dies at 47 years of age
1880 Uncompahgre, Yampa, White River, and Grand River Utes forced out of Colorado into eastern Utah
1880 Reservation established in southwestern Colorado for Southern Utes, a 15 by 100 mile strip of land
1881 Delta and Grand Junction founded on former Ute lands
1887 Colorow leads White River Utes of old Colorado hunting grounds prompting attack by cowboy posse
1888 U.S. takes more Ute lands, paying $50,000 to be divided among the Southern Utes
1895 Hunter Act repeals 1888 treaties and establishes permanent reservation as outlined by 1880 treaties
1896 Land allotments distributed to Southern Utes
1906 Agreement to trade Utes out of Mesa Verde National Park for land on Utah border
1910 Ignacio founded
1918 Consolidated Ute Indian Reservation established
1924 American Indians become U.S. citizens
1934 Wheeler-Howard Act inaugurates the "Indian New Deal"
1936 Buckskin Charlie, one of the last traditional chiefs dies at 96
1936 Southern Utes adopt a constitution and tribal council
1937 Restoration Act returns 222,000 acres to Southern Utes
1938 30,000 acres returned to Ute Mountain Utes
1940 Ute Mountain Utes adopt constitution
1950 U.S. Court of Claims awards the Confederated Bands of Colorado and Utah almost $32 million
1971 Chief Jack House dies - the last traditional chief of the Utes
1986-88 Colorado Ute Water Settlement

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